Congestive heart failure is a condition that is mostly seen in older cats, but can affect felines at every life stage. Detecting the signs of congestive heart failure can increase your cat's survival rate. Learn more here on what to look out for.
Congestive heart failure is a life-threatening condition that can occur in cats at any age, though it is most common in older cats or cats with preexisting medical conditions. Cats suffering from congestive heart failure need immediate veterinary care, so as a pet parent, it is vital to be aware of the symptoms.
What is Congestive Heart Failure?
Congestive heart failure in cats occurs when their heart can't effectively distribute blood throughout the body. Usually, when this first occurs, the body can pick up the slack, ensuring that tissues are receiving the blood and oxygen they need.
However, as the heart disease progresses, the body’s systems that are working overtime can become overwhelmed, leading to a backup of fluids. This fluid can end up in almost any part of the cat’s body, but it frequently shows up in the lungs, causing congestion and making it difficult for oxygen to enter the bloodstream.
Causes of Congestive Heart Failure in Cats
Cats are prone to heart disease, and they're more likely to develop heart problems than dogs. While there's no single cause of heart disease in cats, the most common culprit is high blood pressure. The most common symptom of high blood pressure is shortness of breath, followed by coughing and weight loss.
Congestive heart failure is typically seen in middle-aged or older cats who have one or more conditions, including (but not limited to):
Symptoms of Congestive Heart Failure in Cats
The symptoms of congestive heart failure usually appear gradually. In some cases, it may be easy to miss these symptoms or attribute them to other problems, so you must keep a close eye on your cat. A few things to look out for are:
Diagnosing Congestive Heart Failure in Cats
To diagnose congestive heart failure, your veterinarian will perform a physical examination, during which they will focus closely on your cat’s heart and chest cavity, as well as their breathing.
A vet visit may reveal that your cat's heart rate has slowed down or that it's become irregular. You might notice your cat's gums turning pale or blue, or you might find him panting after exertion.
Specific testing may also be recommended, including blood and urine tests, chest x-rays, an echocardiogram (heart ultrasound), and an electrocardiogram (which records the heart’s electrical activity). If your veterinarian is not a specialist, they may refer you to a cardiologist to perform this testing.
Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure in Cats
Once congestive heart failure has been diagnosed in your cat, there are many ways to treat the condition.
Cats with severe congestive heart failure may need to be hospitalized until blood and oxygen levels return to normal. Depending on the severity of your cat’s condition, this could indicate the need for several procedures, including fluid drainage and oxygen therapy.
In some cases, treatment of an underlying medical condition can fix the problem, and surgery may be an option for cats with a congenital heart condition (one that has been present since birth).
Congestive heart failure can also be treated through changes in your cat’s diet. A low-sodium diet can help prevent fluid buildup, and there are many cat foods formulated specifically for this purpose. Your veterinarian will be able to provide information on how to improve your cat’s condition through diet.
To help your cat lose weight, you can try Hill’s Prescription Diet Cat Food. There’s also the Purina Pro Plan cat food and Purina One Cat Food that you can also try.
Medications can also improve your cat’s condition by reducing fluid buildup and improving heart functions. These medications may include:
Diuretics, which remove excess fluid
Vasodilators or ACE inhibitors dilate blood vessels and allow blood to flow with ease
Positive Inotropes increase heartbeat force, allowing the heart to pump more blood
Commonly prescribed medications include Lasix, Enacard, Vetmedin, and Digoxin, and many cats with congestive heart failure will require medication for the rest of their lives.
You can also keep your cat active with interactive cat toys like the ones by KONG Toys. Staying active will also help your cat lose weight and maintain a healthy body mass, further preventing it from heart problems.
Early detection and treatment of congestive heart failure will greatly improve your cat’s chances of survival, so contact your veterinarian at the first sign that something is wrong.
Since heartworm disease can cause heart failure in cats, it’s important to prevent and treat this condition if necessary.
For prevention, using the Seresto Flea Collar for Cats will be a wise choice. Since mosquitoes spread heartworm disease, you must keep them away from your cat. This flea collar can do just that.
For treatment, a cat dewormer will be ideal. Try Heartgard or Heartgard Plus for Cats. Such a dewormer for cats can deal with heartworms and prevent heart failure in cats.
What Happens When Heart Conditions in Cats are Left Untreated?
When heart problems in cats are left untreated, the result is a condition called cardiomyopathy.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle, which means that the heart becomes enlarged and weak. The two types of cardiomyopathy are dilated and hypertrophic (or restrictive). In dilated cardiomyopathy, the heart becomes enlarged and overstretched. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, however, it becomes stiffer and less flexible than normal.
Cats with cardiomyopathy will often show symptoms such as difficulty breathing or exercise intolerance. They may also experience fainting spells or sudden death due to arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat).