Neosporosis in Dogs: A Closer Look Understanding the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Neosporosis

Neosporosis in Dogs: A Closer Look

Neosporosis can cause life-threatening complications in dogs, including inflammation of the brain and heart. Learn more about its causes, symptoms, and treatment.

Neosporosis is a potentially serious infectious disease that affects dogs and other animals. It is caused by a parasite called Neospora caninum, which is transmitted through contaminated food and water, as well as through vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). 

In this article, we will take a closer look at neosporosis in dogs, including its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. We will also discuss the impact of this disease on dogs and the measures that can be taken to control its spread.

Symptoms of Neosporosis in Dogs

The symptoms of neosporosis in dogs can vary widely and may not always be obvious or apparent. Some dogs may show no signs of illness at all, while others may develop severe and life-threatening symptoms. The most common symptoms of neosporosis in dogs include the following:

  • Breathing difficulties or pneumonia 

  • Loss of appetite resulting from difficulties in swallowing food

  • Weakness and lethargy

  • Muscular tremors and atrophy

  • Difficulty walking or standing due to paralysis in the hind legs or muscle rigidity

  • Seizures and inflammation of the brain or spinal cord

  • Inflammation of the heart and liver

  • Abortions in pregnant dogs

In some cases, neosporosis can also cause other complications, such as inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), and inflammation of the lining of the eye (uveitis). These complications can be serious and may require specialized treatment. It is important to seek veterinary care if you notice any of these symptoms in your dog.

Causes of Neosporosis

Neosporosis is caused by protozoa called Neospora caninum. This parasite is closely related to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis in dogs. Neospora caninum can be transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil or through vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Dogs can also become infected through contact with infected animal tissue or bodily fluids.

The Neospora caninum parasite is a single-celled organism that is found in the tissues of infected animals. It can cause damage to the tissues and organs of the infected animal, leading to the development of clinical signs of disease.

The life cycle of the Neospora caninum parasite is complex and involves multiple stages. After being ingested by the host animal, the parasite goes through several developmental stages inside the host's body, specifically in the intestinal system. Eventually, it becomes infectious and can be transmitted to other animals through contaminated food, water, or soil.

Diagnosing Neosporosis in Dogs

Diagnosing neosporosis in dogs can be challenging, as the symptoms of the disease can be non-specific and may resemble those of other diseases. In addition, some dogs may be infected with the Neospora caninum parasite but show no signs of illness at all.

To diagnose neosporosis in dogs, veterinarians may use a combination of the following techniques:

  • Physical examination: During the physical examination, the veterinarian will look for signs of illness, such as fever, weight loss, and muscle tremors.

  • Laboratory tests: Laboratory tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) and biochemical profile may be used to detect changes in the dog's blood that could be indicative of neosporosis or other diseases.

  • Serological tests: Serological tests, such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), can be used to detect antibodies to the Neospora caninum parasite in the dog's blood. These tests can help confirm the diagnosis of neosporosis.

  • Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as radiography (X-rays) or ultrasound may be used to visualize the internal organs and look for signs of inflammation or other abnormalities.

  • Biopsy: In some cases, a biopsy (tissue sample) may be taken and examined under a microscope to confirm the presence of the Neospora caninum parasite.

It is important to note that a definitive diagnosis of neosporosis may require a combination of these diagnostic techniques. Also, before getting these tests done, it is a good idea to give your dog calming treats that will help them relax. Otherwise, your dog might feel nervous or scared, which isn’t ideal when they are already unwell.


Treatment for neosporosis in dogs typically involves the use of medications to kill the Neospora caninum parasite and control the symptoms of the disease. The most commonly used medications for the treatment of neosporosis in dogs are antiparasitic drugs such as clindamycin, pyrimethamine, and sulfadiazine. These medications are usually given in combination with folinic acid, which helps to reduce the risk of side effects.

In addition to medications for dogs, supportive care may also be necessary to help manage the symptoms of neosporosis. This may include providing fluids to prevent dehydration, controlling fever and pain, and providing proper nutrition to support the dog's recovery. It is a good idea to consult with your veterinarian about specific prescription diets for your dog.

In some cases, treatment may need to be continued for several weeks or even months to ensure that the parasite is fully eliminated from the dog's body. It is also important to note that the long-term prognosis for dogs with neosporosis can vary widely depending on the severity of the disease and the timely initiation of treatment. 

Some dogs may fully recover from the disease, while others may develop long-term complications or even die. The treatment does not resolve the underlying infection, which is why a treated mother may still pass on the disease to puppies. 

The prognosis of the disease is relatively poor for dogs with severe symptoms and puppies, especially if they are born with the disease. Adult dogs with mild symptoms can recover well with treatment. 


There are several measures that can be taken to help prevent neosporosis in dogs:

  • Avoid feeding dogs raw or undercooked meat, as it may be contaminated with the Neospora caninum parasite.

  • Keep dogs away from areas where infected animals may have passed feces.

  • Avoid giving dogs access to stagnant water, as it may be contaminated with the parasite.

  • Use caution when adopting or purchasing a new dog, as the risk of neosporosis may be higher in dogs that come from breeding facilities or shelters.

  • Consider using preventive medications, such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, in high-risk situations.

  • Practice good hygiene and cleanliness to reduce the risk of contamination.

  • Regularly wash your pet’s belongings, such as dog bowls and toys, to keep them clean.

It is important to seek veterinary care if you suspect that your dog may be infected with the Neospora caninum parasite. It is also important to consult with a veterinarian for guidance on the best ways to prevent neosporosis in your dog. The vet will prescribe the necessary medications and recommend proper dietary changes to improve your dog’s health. In some cases, vaccination may be recommended to help protect against the disease.

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