Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis: An Overview How to Treat Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis

Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis: An Overview Photo by Pixabay: https://www.pexels.com/photo/close-up-of-ginger-cat-lying-on-floor-256632/

Numerous domestic cats suffer from the severe illness known as feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). It is distinguished by persistent inflammation and ulceration of the tongue, gums, and oral lining. We discuss this further here.

Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a debilitating condition that affects a significant number of domestic cats. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and ulceration of the gums, tongue, and the lining of the mouth. FCGS can cause severe pain, difficulty eating, and weight loss in affected cats.

This article will provide an overview of FCGS, including its signs, causes, and treatment options.


It is unclear what causes Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis (FCGS). However, a number of things have been put out as probable causes or contributing elements, such as:

  • Dental plaque and tartar: The accumulation of dental plaque and tartar on the teeth can lead to gingivitis, which is an early stage of gum disease. In some cats, this can progress to FCGS.

  • Bacterial or viral infections: Some cats may develop FCGS as a result of an infection with certain bacteria or viruses, such as feline calicivirus or feline herpesvirus.

  • Allergies or immune system disorders: Some cats may develop FCGS as a result of an allergic reaction to certain food or environmental allergens or as a result of an underlying immune system disorder.

  • Hormonal imbalances: Some cats may develop FCGS as a result of an underlying hormonal imbalance, such as hyperthyroidism.

  • Genetics: Some studies suggest that FCGS may have a genetic component and may be more common in certain breeds of cats.

It's worth mentioning that the majority of cases have an idiopathic origin, meaning that a cause can't be identified, and it's probably a combination of multiple factors.


The gums, tongue, and mouth lining are chronically inflamed and ulcerated in cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). Some common symptoms of FCGS include:

  • Bad breath: FCGS can cause a strong, persistent bad odor in the cat's mouth.

  • Drooling: Some cats with FCGS may drool excessively due to the pain and inflammation in their mouths.

  • Reduced appetite: FCGS can cause pain, which makes it challenging for cats to feed. Some cats may avoid eating altogether.

  • Weight loss: Due to reduced appetite, cats with FCGS may lose weight.

  • Swelling of the gums and face: FCGS can cause the gums to become swollen and inflamed, which can also lead to swelling of the cat's face.

  • Oral bleeding: FCGS can cause ulcerations in the mouth that may bleed.

  • Dental problems: FCGS can cause tooth loss and periodontal disease.

  • Difficulty grooming: Cats with FCGS may have difficulty grooming themselves due to pain and inflammation in the mouth.

  • Behavioral changes: FCGS can cause severe pain and discomfort, which can lead to changes in a cat's behavior. Some cats may become more withdrawn or irritable.

Some cats with FCGS may not show any symptoms initially, and that symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the condition. It's crucial to have a veterinarian check any oral signs and symptoms that might suggest FCGS.


There is no one remedy that works for all cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). Thus, treatment might be difficult. The course of action will be determined by the condition's underlying cause and the degree of its symptoms. Some common treatment options include:

  • Dental cleaning: A thorough dental cleaning can be performed under general anesthesia. In addition to scaling and cleaning the teeth, FCGS-affected teeth will need to be removed.

  • Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed if a bacterial infection is suspected as the cause of FCGS.

  • Immunosuppressants: Drugs that suppress the cat’s immune system, such as prednisolone, may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and pain.

  • Topical therapy: Topical therapy, such as chlorhexidine gel, may be used to disinfect the mouth and reduce inflammation.

  • Laser therapy: Some veterinary clinics may offer laser therapy, which uses a laser beam to remove diseased tissue and promote healing.

  • Nutrition: A special diet, such as a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, may be recommended to reduce inflammation in the mouth.

  • Behavioral modification: FCGS can cause severe pain and discomfort, which can lead to changes in a cat's behavior. Behavioral modification techniques may be used to help cats cope with the condition.

Preventive Measures

The complicated condition can be challenging to prevent. However, if the illness has been identified, there are certain steps that may be taken to control it or lower the risk of FCGS.

  • Regular dental check-ups: Regular dental check-ups with your veterinarian can help identify dental problems early on and prevent them from progressing to FCGS.

  • Dental hygiene: A good oral hygiene routine at home, such as regular teeth brushing, can help reduce the buildup of plaque and tartar on the teeth, which can lead to gingivitis.

  • Proper nutrition: A balanced diet can help maintain overall health and reduce the risk of dental problems.

  • Avoid smoking around cats: Second-hand smoke can increase the risk of dental problems and respiratory issues.

  • Keeping cats indoors: cats that stay indoors have less exposure to certain viruses and bacteria that could cause FCGS

  • Vaccination: Vaccination against feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus can reduce the risk of infection.

However, remember that CGS is a complex condition, and there is no guaranteed way to prevent it. However, by taking good care of your cat's dental health and working closely with your veterinarian, you can reduce the risk of FCGS and help manage the condition if it does occur.

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